Federal judiciary of the United States is established by Article III of the Constitution, therefore the Supreme Court possesses constitutional legitimacy as the judicial power of the United States. However, the Supreme Court and all other judicial courts of the United States are established and structured by the Judiciary Act of 1789.

The Congress is qualified to organize the Court including the number of judges. By force of the Judiciary Act of 1869 the Court has nine seats for one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices.  Justices are assigned by the US President and are approved by the Senate, as the same procedure applies to the federal judges.

The Court is the final authority within the judicial system in the end of two levels, respectively district courts and circuit courts. It has the power to decide appeals on all cases brought in federal court or that brought in state court but contradicts with the federal law. Furthermore, the true significance of the Court is its ability to exercise the judicial review of legislation for compatibility with the Constitution, and to strike down incompatible legislation.

Agenda Item: ‘Does A Wedding Cake Constitute First Amendment Protection?: Masterpiece Cakeshop, Ltd. v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission’